The Fundamentals of an Epitalon
Epitalon is a manufactured protein that is created from 4 amino (alanine, glutamic acid, asparagine, and glycine). It is based on a naturally occurring peptide called epithalamin, which is collected from the pineal gland. Vladimir Khavinson, a Russian scientist and gerontologist, is credited with its synthesis. Khavinson’s research centred on the development of peptide preparations that can be utilised to restore function in a variety of organs in order to prevent and reverse the ageing process. The Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology is currently led by him in his capacity as Director.
Epithalamin was initially obtained by Khavinson by extracting it from the pineal gland of calves. In spite of this, he devised a synthetic version of the peptide that he termed Epitalon to get over the production constraints that were intrinsic to the process.
How does one make use of epitalon?
Because peptides are broken down in the digestive tract, it is necessary to inject Epitalon intravenously, intramuscularly, or administer it transdermally (through the skin). This is because peptides are unable to enter the bloodstream in their intact form, which is necessary for them to be able to exert their effects.
The majority of the study has been done on animals and cells, which means that the potential health advantages of Epitalon as well as its safety profile are still largely unresearched. Despite the fact that some of the results are encouraging, the majority of the research has been undertaken. Never take Epitalon without first consulting your physician, and under no circumstances should it be used in place of standard medical treatment.
What the Research Reveals About the Epitalon There is insufficient evidence for the following conditions:
1) Retinitis Pigmentosa
The inherited and degenerative eye condition known as retinitis pigmentosa causes the rods in the retina to deteriorate, which ultimately leads to vision loss. Cones are the other form of photoreceptor found in the eye; rods are one of the two types of receptors that are found in the eye and are responsible for converting light into chemical signals that can be processed by the brain.
Ninety percent of individuals in a clinical investigation found that Epitalon helped reduce the degenerative damage to their retina that was caused by this ailment .
Epitalon increases the function of retinal cells in rats by keeping their form and avoiding degeneration . This is accomplished by preventing the cells from degenerating.
It is not possible to conclude from a single survey including both humans and rats that there is adequate evidence to support this potential usage of Epitalon. In order to verify these exploratory clinical findings, we need to do additional research.
2) Regulating the 24-Hour Circadian Rhythm
Our circadian rhythms grow more disorganised and less distinct as we get older, which coincides with a reduction in melatonin release and changes to our natural sleep patterns .
Epithalamin enhanced melatonin production in a small experiment with 14 elderly persons, and it adjusted the cycle and peak concentrations of melatonin to be similar to those seen in younger people .
In older monkeys, Epitalon reinstated the circadian rhythm and accelerated evening melatonin secretion, both of which are associated with increased levels of cortisol release .
Again, just a limited clinical trial and an experiment on animals have been conducted to investigate this potentially beneficial effect on health. Larger, more robust clinical trials are necessary.
Research on Animals and Cells (Lack of Evidence): There is no clinical evidence to support the use of Epitalon for any of the conditions described in this section. Animal and cell research. The following is a synopsis of the previous research that was conducted on animals and cell-based systems, which ought to direct any future investigational efforts. On the other hand, the studies that were listed shouldn’t be taken as evidence that there are any health benefits.
Longer and Healthier Lives
In a study on rats treated to identical amounts of darkness, varied degrees of light and darkness, or permanent light illumination, Epitalon enhanced maximal longevity in all three groups in compared to the controls . The increases ranged from 68 days to 95 days to 24 days.
Epitalon injections did not influence the average longevity of mice with high blood pressure, but they did enhance the maximal lifespan of mice by 12.3 percent .
According to research conducted on cells, Epitalon was found to improve telomerase activity. This enzyme adds extra nucleotides to the protective sequences at the end of chromosomes, which are called telomeres, and as a result, cells are able to divide and continue growing for a longer period of time [8, 9].
Increasing the Activity of Enzymes
It has been demonstrated that aged people have lower levels of pancreatic enzymes .
Epitalon induced an increase in the activity of enzymes that are responsible for the digestion of protein and sugar in both young and old rats, with the effect being more significant in the older rats .
The peptide was found to improve enzyme activity in the small intestine of aged rats, according to the findings of another study .
In the following section, we will go through some initial research that was conducted on the anticancer activities of Epitalon. It is still being tested on animals, and additional clinical trials are required to evaluate whether or not this peptide can be effective in the treatment of cancer. Under no circumstances should you attempt to use Epitalon in place of standard cancer treatments.
As rats suffering colorectal cancer were administered Epitalon, it neuropeptide enhanced circulation (which contains white blood cells) and apoptosis (which is programmed cell death), while at the same time slowing the growth of the tumour .
In mice that had mammary cancers, treatment with Epitalon resulted in a significant reduction in the number of mice that had numerous tumours and a reduction in the size of the mice’s largest tumours compared to control mice . The researchers also observed that the peptide lowered the expression of particular genes that, when overactivated, play a significant role in the development of breast cancer in both mice and humans. This finding was made in relation to the breast cancer that developed in humans.
One more study was conducted on mice, and the results showed that therapy with Epitalon reduced the number of mice that had cancerous tumours (malignant tumours), and it also stopped the cancer from spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) in all of the treated animals. In contrast, three out of nine mice that did not get therapy with Epitalon showed signs of metastasis .
Mitochondrial dysfunction, which happens when the cell has a budget shortfall in antioxidants to counter the damage caused by free radicals (damaging particles that are obviously lacking electrons), plays a causal role in many maladies, along with heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and even neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease . Oxidative stress is caused when the body has a deficiencies in antioxidants to counteract its effects of free radicals (damaging molecules that are missing electrons).
Melatonin is one of the most powerful antioxidants that can be created by the human body (also known as endogenous antioxidants) .
It is believed that the antioxidant effects of Epitalon are caused in part by the compound’s ability to increase melatonin production , in addition to the processes that are not directly related to the action of melatonin.
When administered to male rats, epithalamin produced a 36% increase in total antioxidant capacity and a 19% increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a potent endogenous antioxidant .
When the blood of breast cancer patients was incubated with epithalamin, the results demonstrated enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidative vitamins .
Conclusion:Even though some of the preclinical study on Epitalon has shown encouraging results, there is still a significant amount of investigation that needs to be carried out in both healthy and diseased persons. Although the FDA has not given its blessing, epitalon is still offered in dietary supplements. Talk to your primary care physician before beginning treatment with Epitalon or any other supplement, especially if the supplement has not been adequately researched.